Citation: British Journal of Nutrition. 117(8):1189-1197, 2017 Apr.Journal: The British journal of nutrition.Published: 2017ISSN: 0007-1145.Full author list: Ford C; Chang S; Vitolins MZ; Fenton JI; Howard BV; Rhee JJ; Stefanick M; Chen B; Snetselaar L; Urrutia R; Frazier-Wood AC.UI/PMID: 28509665.Subject(s): Aged | Diet Records | *Diet Surveys | Female | Follow-Up Studies | Humans | Middle Aged | *Postmenopause | *Weight GainInstitution(s): MedStar Health Research InstituteActivity type: Journal Article.Medline article type(s): Journal ArticleDigital Object Identifier: https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517000952 (Click here)Abbreviated citation: Br J Nutr. 117(8):1189-1197, 2017 Apr.Abstract: It is unclear which of four popular contemporary diet patterns is best for weight maintenance among postmenopausal women. Four dietary patterns were characterised among postmenopausal women aged 49-81 years (mean 63.6 (sd 7.4) years) from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study: (1) a low-fat diet; (2) a reduced-carbohydrate diet; (3) a Mediterranean-style (Med) diet; and (4) a diet consistent with the US Department of Agriculture's Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). Discrete-time hazards models were used to compare the risk of weight gain (>=10 %) among high adherers of each diet pattern. In adjusted models, the reduced-carbohydrate diet was inversely related to weight gain (OR 0.71; 95 % CI 0.66, 0.76), whereas the low-fat (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.33, 1.54) and DGA (OR 1.24; 95 % CI 1.15, 1.33) diets were associated with increased risk of weight gain. By baseline weight status, the reduced-carbohydrate diet was inversely related to weight gain among women who were normal weight (OR 0.72; 95 % CI 0.63, 0.81), overweight (OR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.59, 0.76) or obese class I (OR 0.63; 95 % CI 0.53, 0.76) at baseline. The low-fat diet was associated with increased risk of weight gain in women who were normal weight (OR 1.28; 95 % CI 1.13, 1.46), overweight (OR 1.60; 95 % CI 1.40, 1.83), obese class I (OR 1.73; 95 % CI 1.43, 2.09) or obese class II (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.92) at baseline. These findings suggest that a low-fat diet may promote weight gain, whereas a reduced-carbohydrate diet may decrease risk of postmenopausal weight gain.