Citation: Neural Plasticity. 2017:8740353, 2017.Journal: Neural plasticity.Published: 2017ISSN: 1687-5443.Full author list: Skipper-Kallal LM; Lacey EH; Xing S; Turkeltaub PE.UI/PMID: 28168061.Subject(s): Aged | Aphasia/et [Etiology] | *Aphasia/pa [Pathology] | *Aphasia/pp [Physiopathology] | Brain/pa [Pathology] | Brain/pp [Physiopathology] | Brain Mapping | *Cerebrum/pa [Pathology] | *Cerebrum/pp [Physiopathology] | Female | Functional Laterality | Humans | Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Male | Middle Aged | *Neuronal Plasticity | *Stroke/co [Complications]Institution(s): MedStar Washington Hospital Center | MedStar National Rehabilitation NetworkDepartment(s): NeurologyActivity type: Journal Article.Medline article type(s): Journal ArticleDigital Object Identifier: https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/8740353 (Click here)ORCID: Turkeltaub, Peter E https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2080-6055 (Click here)Abbreviated citation: Neural Plast. 2017:8740353, 2017.Abstract: The study of language network plasticity following left hemisphere stroke is foundational to the understanding of aphasia recovery and neural plasticity in general. Damage in different language nodes may influence whether local plasticity is possible and whether right hemisphere recruitment is beneficial. However, the relationships of both lesion size and location to patterns of remapping are poorly understood. In the context of a picture naming fMRI task, we tested whether lesion size and location relate to activity in surviving left hemisphere language nodes, as well as homotopic activity in the right hemisphere during covert name retrieval and overt name production. We found that lesion size was positively associated with greater right hemisphere activity during both phases of naming, a pattern that has frequently been suggested but has not previously been clearly demonstrated. During overt naming, lesions in the inferior frontal gyrus led to deactivation of contralateral frontal areas, while lesions in motor cortex led to increased right motor cortex activity. Furthermore, increased right motor activity related to better naming performance only when left motor cortex was lesioned, suggesting compensatory takeover of speech or language function by the homotopic node. These findings demonstrate that reorganization of language function, and the degree to which reorganization facilitates aphasia recovery, is dependent on the size and site of the lesion.