Citation: Frontiers in neurology [electronic resource].. 8:224, 2017.Journal: Frontiers in neurology.Published: 2017ISSN: 1664-2295.Full author list: Harris-Love ML; Harrington RM.UI/PMID: 28611727.Subject(s): IN PROCESS -- NOT YET INDEXEDInstitution(s): MedStar National Rehabilitation NetworkActivity type: Journal Article.Medline article type(s): Journal ArticleDigital Object Identifier: https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2017.00224 (Click here)Abbreviated citation: Front Neurol. 8:224, 2017.Abstract: Motor practice is an essential part of upper limb motor recovery following stroke. To be effective, it must be intensive with a high number of repetitions. Despite the time and effort required, gains made from practice alone are often relatively limited, and substantial residual impairment remains. Using non-invasive brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability prior to practice could enhance the effects of practice and provide greater returns on the investment of time and effort. However, determining which cortical area to target is not trivial. The implications of relevant conceptual frameworks such as Interhemispheric Competition and Bimodal Balance Recovery are discussed. In addition, we introduce the STAC (Structural reserve, Task Attributes, Connectivity) framework, which incorporates patient-, site-, and task-specific factors. An example is provided of how this framework can assist in selecting a cortical region to target for priming prior to reaching practice poststroke. We suggest that this expanded patient-, site-, and task-specific approach provides a useful model for guiding the development of more successful approaches to neuromodulation for enhancing motor recovery after stroke.