Citation: Allergy & Asthma Proceedings. 39(2):143-152, 2018 Mar 01..Journal: Allergy and asthma proceedings.Published: 2018ISSN: 1088-5412.Full author list: Lawless OJ; Bellanti JA; Brown ML; Sandberg K; Umans JG; Zhou L; Chen W; Wang J; Wang K; Zheng SG.UI/PMID: 29490770.Subject(s): Animals | *CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/im [Immunology] | Cattle | Cell Proliferation | Cells, Cultured | CpG Islands/ge [Genetics] | DNA/ge [Genetics] | *DNA/im [Immunology] | DNA Methylation/im [Immunology] | Forkhead Transcription Factors/me [Metabolism] | Humans | Hypersensitivity/im [Immunology] | Hypersensitivity/th [Therapy] | Immunosuppression | *Immunotherapy/mt [Methods] | Isoantigens/im [Immunology] | *Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/im [Immunology] | Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/th [Therapy] | Lymphocyte Activation | *T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/im [Immunology] | Transforming Growth Factor beta/me [Metabolism]Institution(s): MedStar Health Research InstituteActivity type: Journal Article.Medline article type(s): Journal ArticleDigital Object Identifier: https://dx.doi.org/10.2500/aap.2018.39.4113 (Click here)Abbreviated citation: Allergy Asthma Proc. 39(2):143-152, 2018 Mar 01.Abstract: BACKGROUND: Allergic and autoimmune diseases comprise a group of inflammatory disorders caused by aberrant immune responses in which CD25+ Forkhead box P3-positive (FOXP3+) T regulatory (Treg) cells that normally suppress inflammatory events are often poorly functioning. This has stimulated an intensive investigative effort to find ways of increasing Tregs as a method of therapy for these conditions. One such line of investigation includes the study of how ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by CpG oligonucleotides (ODN) results in an immunostimulatory cascade that leads to induction of T-helper (Th) type 1 and Treg-type immune responses.Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the mechanisms by which calf thymus mammalian double-stranded DNA (CT-DNA) and a synthetic methylated DNA CpG ODN sequence suppress in vitro lymphoproliferative responses to antigens, mitogens, and alloantigens when measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation and promote FoxP3 expression in human CD4+ T cells in the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta and interleukin-2 (IL-2).Abstract: METHODS: Lymphoproliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four healthy subjects or nine subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus to CT-DNA or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was measured by tritiated thymidine ([3H]-TdR) incorporation expressed as a stimulation index. Mechanisms of immunosuppressive effects of CT-DNA were evaluated by measurement of the degree of inhibition to lymphoproliferative responses to streptokinase-streptodornase, phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), or alloantigens by a Con A suppressor assay. The effects of CpG methylation on induction of FoxP3 expression in human T cells were measured by comparing inhibitory responses of synthetic methylated and nonmethylated 8-mer CpG ODN sequences by using cell sorting, in vitro stimulation, and suppressor assay.Abstract: RESULTS: Here, we showed that CT-DNA and a synthetic methylated DNA 8-mer sequence could suppress antigen-, mitogen-, and alloantigen-induced lymphoproliferation in vitro when measured by [3H]-thymidine. The synthetic methylated DNA CpG ODN but not an unmethylated CpG ODN sequence was shown to promote FoxP3 expression in human CD4+ T cells in the presence of TGF beta and IL-2. The induction of FoxP3+ suppressor cells is dose dependent and offers a potential clinical therapeutic application in allergic and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.Abstract: CONCLUSION: The use of this methylated CpG ODN offers a broad clinical application as a novel therapeutic method for Treg induction and, because of its low cost and small size, should facilitate delivery via nasal, respiratory, gastrointestinal routes, and/or by injection, routes of administration important for vaccine delivery to target sites responsible for respiratory, gastrointestinal, and systemic forms of allergic and autoimmune disease.