Citation: Menopause. 2019 Feb 19.Journal: Menopause (New York, N.Y.).Published: ; 2019ISSN: 1072-3714.Full author list: Freeborne N; Simmens SJ; Manson JE; Howard BV; Cene CW; Allison MA; Corbie-Smith G; Bell CL; Denburg NL; Martin LW.UI/PMID: 30789457.Subject(s): IN PROCESS -- NOT YET INDEXEDInstitution(s): MedStar Health Research InstituteActivity type: Journal Article.Medline article type(s): Journal ArticleDigital Object Identifier: https://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001297 (Click here)Abbreviated citation: Menopause. 2019 Feb 19.Local Holdings: Available online from MWHC library: November 2000 - present.Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown social support to be inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men, whereas fewer studies have assessed the relationship in women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between perceived social support and cardiovascular outcomes among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.Abstract: METHODS: We examined the relationships between perceived social support and (1) incident coronary heart disease (CHD), (2) total CVD, and (3) all-cause mortality. Participants were Women's Health Initiative Observational Study women, ages 50 to 79 years, enrolled between 1993 and 1998 and followed for up to 10.8 years. Social support was ascertained at baseline via nine questions measuring the following functional support components: emotional/informational, tangible, positive social interaction, and affectionate support.Abstract: RESULTS: Among women with prior CVD (n = 17,351) and no prior CVD (n = 73,421), unadjusted hazard ratios ranged from 0.83 to 0.93 per standard deviation increment of social support. Adjustment for potential confounders, such as smoking and physical activity levels, eliminated the statistical significance of the associations with CHD and CVD. However, for all-cause mortality and among women free of baseline CVD, the association was modest but remained statistically significant after this adjustment (hazard ratio = 0.95 [95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.98]). No statistically significant association was observed among women with a history of CVD.Abstract: CONCLUSIONS: After controlling for potential confounding variables, higher perceived social support is not associated with incident CHD or CVD. However, among women free of CVD at baseline, perceived social support is associated with a slightly lower risk of all-cause mortality.