Citation: Medical Education Online. 20:25923, 2015..Journal: Medical education online.ISSN: 1087-2981.Full author list: Bruce AN; Battista A; Plankey MW; Johnson LB; Marshall MB.UI/PMID: 25652117.Subject(s): Adult | Female | Humans | *Internship and Residency/sn [Statistics & Numerical Data] | Middle Aged | Perception | *Schools, Medical/sn [Statistics & Numerical Data] | *Sexism/sn [Statistics & Numerical Data] | Socioeconomic Factors | *Students, Medical/sn [Statistics & Numerical Data] | *Surgical Procedures, Operative/ed [Education]Institution(s): MedStar Health Research InstituteActivity type: Journal Article.Medline article type(s): Journal ArticleOnline resources: Click here to access onlineDigital Object Identifier: http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/meo.v20.25923 (Click here)Abbreviated citation: Med. educ. online. 20:25923, 2015.Abstract: BACKGROUND: Women represent 15% of practicing general surgeons. Gender-based discrimination has been implicated as discouraging women from surgery. We sought to determine women's perceptions of gender-based discrimination in the surgical training and working environment.Abstract: METHODS: Following IRB approval, we fielded a pilot survey measuring perceptions and impact of gender-based discrimination in medical school, residency training, and surgical practice. It was sent electronically to 1,065 individual members of the Association of Women Surgeons.Abstract: RESULTS: We received 334 responses from medical students, residents, and practicing physicians with a response rate of 31%. Eighty-seven percent experienced gender-based discrimination in medical school, 88% in residency, and 91% in practice. Perceived sources of gender-based discrimination included superiors, physician peers, clinical support staff, and patients, with 40% emanating from women and 60% from men.Abstract: CONCLUSIONS: The majority of responses indicated perceived gender-based discrimination during medical school, residency, and practice. Gender-based discrimination comes from both sexes and has a significant impact on women surgeons.