Citation: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging. 30(5):849-56, 2014 Jun..Journal: The international journal of cardiovascular imaging.ISSN: 1569-5794.Full author list: Maehara A; Mintz GS; Bui AB; Pichard AD; Satler LF; Waksman R; Suddath WO; Kent KM; Weissman NJ.UI/PMID: 24728727.Subject(s): Cardiovascular Diseases/su [Surgery] | Coronary Angiography | Female | Humans | Male | Middle Aged | *Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/ae [Adverse Effects] | Retrospective Studies | Treatment Outcome | *Ultrasonography, Interventional | *Vascular System Injuries/et [Etiology] | Vascular System Injuries/ra [Radiography] | *Vascular System Injuries/us [Ultrasonography]Institution(s): MedStar Heart & Vascular InstituteActivity type: Journal Article.Medline article type(s): Comparative Study | Journal Article | Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tDigital Object Identifier: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-014-0413-0 (Click here)Abbreviated citation: Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 30(5):849-56, 2014 Jun.Abstract: We assessed whether intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can detect evidence of coronary perforation that is not visible by coronary angiography. Approximately 15, 000 consecutive percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) performed with IVUS guidance were reviewed retrospectively, pre- and post-PCI IVUS images were compared, and IVUS findings were compared with coronary angiography and in-hospital outcomes. We detected three distinct patterns that were not present pre-PCI and that were suggestive of perforation or perivascular trauma: perivascular blood speckle in 67 % (51/76), perivascular hematoma in 17 % (13/76), and new echolucent perivascular layer in 16 % (12/76). Angiographic appearance included perforation in 24 % (18/76), dissection in 33 % (25/76), lumen irregularity in 17 % (13/76), new stenosis in 5 % (4/76), and no abnormalities in 21 % (16/76). The site of a break in arterial wall with communication between the lumen and perivascular space could be detected in 61 % (46/76). This extended proximally and distally with equal frequency, but was primarily located within the lesion in 80 % (61/76), although the lumen was rarely compromised. Within 24 h, there were four emergent coronary artery bypass grafting procedures, one repeat PCI, and six periprocedural myocardial infarctions (defined as CK-MB >10 times the upper limit of normal), but there were no episodes of cardiac tamponade. Although infrequent, IVUS detected three distinct patterns of post-PCI perivascular trauma suggestive of a perforation that was detected angiographically in only 24 % of cases.