Association between exposure to low to moderate arsenic levels and incident cardiovascular disease. A prospective cohort study.[Summary for patients in Ann Intern Med. 2013 Nov 19;159(10):I-20; PMID: 24400335]Citation: Annals of Internal Medicine. 159(10):649-59, 2013 Nov 19.PMID: 24061511Institution: MedStar Health Research InstituteForm of publication: Journal ArticleMedline article type(s): Journal Article | Research Support, N.I.H., ExtramuralSubject headings: *Arsenic/ur [Urine] | *Cardiovascular Diseases/ep [Epidemiology] | *Environmental Exposure/ae [Adverse Effects] | Aged | Biological Markers/ur [Urine] | Cardiovascular Diseases/mo [Mortality] | Diabetes Mellitus/ep [Epidemiology] | Drinking Water | Female | Food Contamination | Humans | Incidence | Indians, North American/sn [Statistics & Numerical Data] | Male | Middle Aged | Proportional Hazards Models | Prospective Studies | Risk Factors | United States/ep [Epidemiology]Year: 2013Local holdings: Available online from MWHC library: 1993 - present, Available in print through MWHC library: 1999 - 2006ISSN:
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Available online from MWHC library: 1993 - present, Available in print through MWHC library: 1999 - 2006
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to high levels of arsenic is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, whereas risk from long-term exposure to low to moderate arsenic levels (< 100mug/L in drinking water) is unclear.
MEASUREMENTS: The sum of inorganic and methylated arsenic species in urine at baseline was used as a biomarker of long-term arsenic exposure. Outcomes were incident fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between long-term exposure to low to moderate arsenic levels and incident cardiovascular disease. Design: Prospective cohort study.
RESULTS: A total of 1184 participants developed fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease. When the highest and lowest quartiles of arsenic concentrations (> 15.7 vs. < 5.8 mug/g creatinine) were compared,the hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, smoking, body mass index, and lipid levels were 1.65 (95%CI, 1.20 to 2.27; P for trend < 0.001), 1.71 (CI, 1.19 to 2.44; P for trend < 0.001), and 3.03 (CI, 1.08 to 8.50; P for trend = 0.061),respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for incident cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke were 1.32 (CI,1.09 to 1.59; P for trend = 0.002), 1.30 (CI, 1.04 to 1.62; P for trend = 0.006), and 1.47 (CI, 0.97 to 2.21; P for trend = 0.032).These associations varied by study region and were attenuated after further adjustment for diabetes, hypertension, and kidney disease measures.Limitation: Direct measurement of individual arsenic levels in drinking water was unavailable.Conclusion: Long-term exposure to low to moderate arsenic levels was associated with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality.
SETTING: The Strong Heart Study baseline visit between 1989 and 1991, with follow-up through 2008.Patients: 3575 American Indian men and women aged 45 to 74 years living in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota.