Citation: Cancer Journal. 23(1):59-62, 2017 Jan/Feb.Journal: Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.).Published: 2017ISSN: 1528-9117.Full author list: Christiansen SA; Khan S; Gibney GT.UI/PMID: 28114256.Subject(s): Combined Modality Therapy | Endpoint Determination | Humans | *Immunotherapy/mt [Methods] | Melanoma/dt [Drug Therapy] | Melanoma/im [Immunology] | Melanoma/pa [Pathology] | *Melanoma/th [Therapy] | Molecular Targeted Therapy | Randomized Controlled Trials as TopicInstitution(s): MedStar Washington Hospital CenterDepartment(s): MedicineActivity type: Journal Article.Medline article type(s): Journal ArticleOnline resources: Click here to access onlineDigital Object Identifier: https://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PPO.0000000000000245 (Click here)Abbreviated citation: Cancer J. 23(1):59-62, 2017 Jan/Feb.Local Holdings: Available online through MWHC library: 2002 - present.Abstract: In recent years, the field of oncology has witnessed many breakthroughs in the treatment of advanced malignancies, particularly in patients with advanced melanoma. Targeted and immune checkpoint therapies have emerged as the primary treatment strategies for these patients. Molecular profiling of melanoma is incorporated into routine practice to identify potential therapeutic targets, and patients are offered either a targeted or immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy approach. Both strategies have limitations where not all patients experience durable responses. Preclinical data have demonstrated the ability of targeted therapy to enhance activity of effector T cells, reduce immunosuppressive cytokine production, and increase tumor cell antigen presentation, which can augment antitumor immunity. In vivo models have shown synergy with improved tumor control when targeted and immune checkpoint agents are combined. Therefore, combination strategies with targeted and immune checkpoint therapy may improve patient outcomes. Early clinical data with anti-programmed cell-death protein 1/programmed cell-death ligand 1 agents in combination with targeted inhibitors appear to have acceptable toxicity rates and the potential for enhanced antitumor activity. This review explores the current status of preclinical and clinical development for these combination approaches in patients with advanced melanoma.