Citation: Wound Repair & Regeneration. 29(1):117-128, 2021 01.; .Journal: Wound repair and regeneration : official publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society.Published: 2021; ; ; ISSN: 1067-1927.Full author list: Alkhalil A; Carney BC; Kirkpatrick LD; Moffatt LT; Shupp JW; Smith RD.UI/PMID: 33073427.Subject(s): *Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/ge [Genetics] | *Galectin 1/bi [Biosynthesis] | *RNA, Messenger/ge [Genetics] | *Wound Healing | Animals | Biomarkers/me [Metabolism] | Cell Differentiation | Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/me [Metabolism] | Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/pa [Pathology] | Disease Models, Animal | Fibroblasts/me [Metabolism] | Fibroblasts/pa [Pathology] | Humans | Male | SwineInstitution(s): MedStar Health Research Institute | MedStar Washington Hospital CenterDepartment(s): Firefighters' Burn and Surgical Research Laboratory | Surgery/Burn ServicesActivity type: Journal Article.Medline article type(s): Journal ArticleDigital Object Identifier: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/wrr.12869 (Click here)ORCID: Kirkpatrick, Liam D ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2744-9102 (Click here)Abbreviated citation: Wound Repair Regen. 29(1):117-128, 2021 01; .Abstract: Upon healing, burn wounds often leave hypertrophic scars (HTSs) marked by excess collagen deposition, dermal and epidermal thickening, hypervascularity, and an increased density of fibroblasts. The Galectins, a family of lectins with a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain, function intracellularly and extracellularly to mediate a multitude of biological processes including inflammatory responses, angiogenesis, cell migration and differentiation, and cell-ECM adhesion. Galectin-1 (Gal-1) has been associated with several fibrotic diseases and can induce keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation, migration, and differentiation into fibroproliferative myofibroblasts. In this study, Gal-1 expression was assessed in human and porcine HTS. In a microarray, galectins 1, 4, and 12 were upregulated in pig HTS compared to normal skin (fold change = +3.58, +6.11, and +3.03, FDR <0.01). Confirmatory qRT-PCR demonstrated significant upregulation of Galectin-1 (LGALS1) transcription in HTS in both human and porcine tissues (fold change = +7.78 and +7.90, P <.05). In pig HTS, this upregulation was maintained throughout scar development and remodeling. Immunofluorescent staining of Gal-1 in human and porcine HTS showed significantly increased fluorescence (202.5 +/- 58.2 vs 35.2 +/- 21.0, P <.05 and 276.1 +/- 12.7 vs 69.7 +/- 25.9, P <.01) compared to normal skin and co-localization with smooth muscle actin-expressing myofibroblasts. A strong positive correlation (R = .948) was observed between LGALS1 and Collagen type 1 alpha 1 mRNA expression. Gal-1 is overexpressed in HTS at the mRNA and protein levels and may have a role in the development of scar phenotypes due to fibroblast over-proliferation, collagen secretion, and dermal thickening. The role of galectins shows promise for future study and may lead to the development of a pharmacotherapy for treatment of HTS. Copyright (c) 2020 The Wound Healing Society.